Gascon Roll for the 20th year of the reign of Edward III
Physical condition of the roll
The roll consists of 3 membranes. There are entries on all of the face sides, but no entries on the dorse. The roll is generally in good condition.
C 61/58 20 Edward III (1346-47)
We find here another very short roll of only three membranes, no doubt the result of the distraction of the English administration with events in northern France, as well as the exercise of personal authority by Henry of Grosmont, earl of Lancaster, in his capacity as king's lieutenant and captain-general in the duchy for most of the year.
In the previous year (1345) Grosmont had captured the strategically important town of Bergerac on the Dordogne, and had defeated the French at Auberoche. Late in that year he had retaken the town of La Réole, although its citadel did not surrender until the following January, and over the winter months into 1346 had recovered much of Agenais. Despite the return of the army of the duke of Normandy (John, eldest son of the king of France Philip VI) to the duchy, and the long siege of Aiguillon (1 April 1346-20 August 1346), the French were unable to reverse the tide of English success. The arrival of Edward III with his army south of Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue in the Cotentin peninsula in Normandy on the morning of 12 July 1346 brought dramatic changes in the English position in the duchy of Aquitaine. When the duke of Normandy heard of the landing in August, he broke off the siege of Aiguillon, and took his army north to aid his father Philip VI. This left Lancaster and his Anglo-Gascon army an almost freehand in the duchy which they exploited to the fullest. The earl was to stay in the duchy until December 1346 and returned to England on New Year’s day in 1347 after his arrival had been delayed by a 'great storm' at sea. 1 Within a month Lancaster was relieved of his lieutenancy, and by the summer he had joined the king at the siege of Calais. 2
Although, as we have seen, there was considerable activity in the duchy throughout this year, very little of it filters through to the Gascon Rolls. There are the normal plethora of letters of protection and of attorney, but now predominantly for those already in the king's service in Gascony, in the company of the earls of Lancaster and Pembroke, Walter Mauny and Peter Gretheved . 3 One notable exception is the letter of protection issued to Robert de Elford on 9 August 1346 who had not been granted a prior protection, and as Pembroke’s attorney had received payments from the exchequer back in England for the earl’s war expenses. 4 It is likely, therefore, that a main purpose of Elford’s visit to the duchy would have been to transport Pembroke’s money in order to keep his retinue well financed as the war continued beyond a year. There are also two interesting pardons issued, perhaps at the request of the earl of Lancaster, for two people accused of murder, on condition that they serve the earl in the duchy at their own costs for a year. 5 There is also some evidence for the provisioning of the English and their allies in the duchy, including one vessel that seems to have been carrying victuals for the earl himself. 6
That the king, and his administration in the duchy still remained desperately short of money is amply illustrated by the divertion of money being collected in Bordeaux for the infant duke of Brittany. 7 The administration also seems to have had some issues in retaining its leading English officers. The earl of Lancaster was given full power to negotiate with Ralph de Stafford, the then seneschal of Gascony, for his continuance in that office, he having requested to the king to be relieved. 8
A small group of entries deal with the service of the Bayonne fleet then in England. Its admiral was ordered to take his ships to sea to wreak as much damage on the king of France and his allies, presumably to secure the sea crossing from England for the king and his army then in preparation for the Crecy campaign. 9
Otherwise, there is very little 'normal' business. The ongoing problem of Bayonnaise ships taking ships from the Iberian peninsula continued with orders for the compensation of Portuguese merchants who had lost goods and ships apparently en route home around Guernsey. 10 One other entry dealt with the all too common order to pay a loyal subject compensation for lands lost to the French. 11
Simon J. Harris & Nicholas A. Gribit.
- TNA, E 372/191, m. 54d.
- Lancaster’s discharge from office: Calendar of the Patent Rolls (CPR), 1345-48 , p. 526. See also Gribit, N., Henry of Lancaster's Expedition to Aquitaine, 1345-46 .
- entry 2 , entry 5 , entry 6 , entry 13 , entry 15 , entry 18 , entry 20 , entry 21 , entry 22 , entry 23 , entry 24 , entry , entry 27 , entry 28 , entry 29 , entry 30 , entry 31 , entry 32 & entry 33 , entry 34 .
- entry 32 & entry 23 .
- entry 7 entry 7 .
- entry 11 , entry 11 entry 36 .
- entry 9 entry 10 . The entry is also of particular interest for it describes the young duke's father, Jean de Montfort, as 'duke of Brittany and count of Montfort', titles that seem to have been very little used outside of the circle of that individual's immediate supporters, and is certainly ignored in the more modern genealogies which pass from Duke Jean III to Jean IV without making mention of the fourth duke's father.
- entry 12 This dates to 15 March 1346. It is not clear why Stafford wanted to be relieved, though it might perhaps have had roots in what must have been the severe curtailment of the seneschal's powers with such a powerful lieutenant in place. However, it might also have had some foundation in a desire to join the king on the Crecy campaign. That the earl of Lancaster seems to have been successful in his negotiations is revealed by further letters of protection for Stafford to remain in the duchy issued on 6 July 1346 ( entry 27 ).
- entry 1 , entry 3 .
- entry 16 entry 17 .
- entry 19 .
Gascon Roll for the 20th year of the reign of Edward III in England, and his 7th in France.
3 February 1346 . Langele Kings Langley . For the appointment of the admiral of the Bayonne fleet .
To all admirals, sheriffs, mayors, keepers of maritime ports, owners, masters and mariners of ships, bailiffs, ministers and other faithful subjects.
Appointment, during pleasure, of Dovynyau Pey du Vignau of Baion' Bayonne , as admiral of all the king's ships of Baion' Bayonne , now in England, and those coming there; granting him full power to go to sea, with those ships, and the owners, masters and mariners, and other men of them, to fight and harass the king's French enemies, both by land and sea, inflicting as much damage as they are able, weakening the enemy fleet both on land and at sea according to the advice of the owners and masters of the ships; doing all that pertains to the office, and taking and arresting all of those in the fleet, who he finds rebellious, and imprisoning them, where they are to reside until the king commands otherwise. They are to be intendant upon, advise and aid Vignau, as often and when he requests it, and the sheriffs and bailiffs are to receive those that he arrests, and keep them in prison, in safe custody.
4 February 1346 . Langele Kings Langley . For the appointment of the admiral of the Bayonne fleet .
Letter of intendancy in favour of Dovynyau Pey du Vignau of Baiona Bayonne , whom the king has appointed as admiral of all of his ships [of Bayonne in England], by his letters patent. They are ordered, under pain of forfeiture, to answer, consult with, obey and aid him.
Same as above For the arresting of ships of Bayonne .
Assignment, during pleasure, of Dovynyau Pey du Vignau, admiral of the ships of Baiona Bayonne in England, and Robert Mounseux 1 , Vignau's serjeant-at-arms , to take and arrest all the ships of Baiona Bayonne that they find in ports and places, or on the sea, and owners, masters and mariners of those ships, and to go to sea with them. And all those that they find rebellious, they are to commit to prison, to remain there until the king orders otherwise. All owners, masters and mariners of those ships, are ordered to obey them in this, by the tenor of these letters; and the king's sheriffs, bailiffs and ministers are to receive all of those who are arrested, and keep them safely in prison.
- It could be a Robert Morcenx.
4 February 1346 . Westminster . For attorney .
Letters of general attorney in England, for one year, for Mohon Reynold de Mohun, kt , who is going to Gascony in the company of Henry, earl of Lancaster and Derby , nominating Mohon John de Mohun and William de Houthorp' alternately.
The chancellor received the attorney.
For pardon for a homicide.
10 March 1346 . Westminster .
Pardon to Stephen Hykelot , for his good service that he has done in Gascony, in the company of Henry, earl of Lancaster , and because he has found, before the king in the chancery, his mainpernors - William Swetyng' and atte Watre John Attwater of Kent - that he would go to Gascony, in the earl's company, or elsewhere, where the king will assign, at his own cost, for one year. The king has pardoned him for the death of Thomas Jun , of which he is indicted, accused or appealed, and also of the outlawry for this, if promulgated against him, and has granted him his firm peace, on condition that he goes to Gascony, in the earl's company, or elsewhere, as above, and also that he stands trial in the king's court, if anyone wishes to speak against him.
Same as above
Pardon, at the request of Henry, earl of Lancaster , to Peverel John Peveril , for his good service that he has done in Gascony, in the company of that earl, and because he has found, before the king in the chancery, his mainpernors - John Beauflour and Grymstede John Grimstead of Hampshire - as above. The king has pardoned him for the death of Thomas Wambergh' , chaplain , of which he is indicted, as above mutatis mutandis . 1
- The entry is followed by two sets of marks in the margin for further entries, but no entries have been inserted.
For the auditing of the account of Thomas de Urswick.
Assignment of John Wawayn, constable of Bordeaux , to audit the account of Ursewyk' Thomas de Urswick , lately assigned to receive the customs and payments pertaining to the king, as guardian of Jean [de Montfort], 2 son and heir of Jean [de Montfort], late duke of Brittany and count of Monte Forti Montfort , a minor , and being in the king's custody, from ships loaded on the Gerounde river Gironde , and at Burdeg' Bordeaux , and elsewhere, for the time that Urswick received them; and to compel him to render account, by his arrest, if that is necessary. Wawayn is to apply the customs and payments that he collects and receives from now on, to the king's use, for the advancement of the war in Gascony, according to the advice of Henry, earl of Lancaster and Derby . Urswick is ordered, by the tenor of these presents to render the account to Wawayn, and to answer and be intendant upon him.
- A note in the margin states ' extractus '.
- Future Jean IV, duke of Brittany.
14 March 1346 . Tower of London . For being intendant upon Hugh Martin for the acquiring of carriage .
To all sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs, ministers and all faithful subjects.
Letters of intendancy in favour of Martyn Hugh Martin , who is going to Gascony to Henry, earl of Lancaster and Derby , in the next crossing, to take various property and goods to the earl on the king's behalf, and the king has assigned him to provide sufficient transport for carrying the same to the port of departure, using his money for this.
15 March 1346 . Tower of London . For replacing the seneschal of Gascony with another .
Commitment to Henry, earl of Lancaster , Leicester and Derby , steward of England , the king's lieutenant in the duchy of Aquitaine , of power to treat with Ralph de Stafford, seneschal of Gascony , who has requested that the king discharge him from his office, for his continuing in that office; and if he will not continue, to discharge him from the same, and replace him with someone else who is suitable, during pleasure, and the king will confirm whatever the earl does.
For the merchants of Portugal.
23 March 1346 . Westminster .
Order to the mayor, hundred peers and all the community of Baion' Bayonne to inspect the letters of Afonso [IV], king of Portugal and Algarve , which the king sends to them under his privy seal, and they are to restore the goods taken from four Portuguese ships, and taken to Bayonne, to the proctors of those damaged by the theft, if those goods still exist, and if not, the value of the same, without delay, as is just, and so that the king does not have to impose another remedy in default of their actions.
The king of Portugal has written to the king concerning four ships of his subjects, of Portus Porto , one of which was loaded with cloth in the port of Brest in Britann' Brittany , two others, whereof Pessot Francisco Peixotto and Bartolomeu Pescheyn , were masters, loaded with goods sold by weight ( averium ponderis ) and fish in the port of Odierne Audierne , and the fourth ship, whereof Domingos Vidal was master, loaded with a great quantity of cloth in the port of Barbarak , 1 and which were stolen by Guilhem-Pey de Mées, late admiral of the fleet of Baion' Bayonne , Poiane Pey de Poyanne, late mayor of the city , and the community of the same, in times of peace, and they took all the goods and merchandise that they found in the ships to Bayonne, where they did what they willed with it, and the king of Portugal has requested that the king will order swift justice to be done to Estyveyns Nicolau Esteves and Suso Vasco de Sousa , proctors of those damaged by the seizure and theft, and will provide remedy.
- It could be related to the river Aber-Wrac'h in Brittany.
Same as above
Order to the same, as above to Estyveyns Nicolau Esteves and Suso Vasco de Sousa , proctors of those damaged by the seizure and theft from their ships. Afonso [IV], king of Portugal and Algarve having written to the king concerning three ships of his subjects, charged with goods sold by weight ( averium ponderis ), whereof Apparteus João , Nicolau Conten and Sancto Johanne, de Domingos de São João , were masters, were lately seized and robbed at the Isle of Gernereye Guernsey , by Pynsole Pey-Bernat de Pinsolle, master of the ship called Dieux , and Galhart de Casaux, master of the ship of Pesselas , in times of peace, and took the goods and merchandise found in the ship, to the city, and gave them to Jacmes de Lesbay , Bertholomiu de Lesbay , and Guilhem-Pey de Lesbay , then owners of the ship called la Dieux and requested remedy.
9 April 1346 . Westminster . For Pey Blanc de l'Estelle .
Order to the seneschal of Gascony and constable of Bordeaux, or their lieutenants, to allow to Blank de Lesteille Pey Blanc de l'Estelle, burgess of Burdeg' Bordeaux , 50 l.st. for each of the five year's term that the king stipulated a grant to him of 250 l.st. should be made, from the customs on the transport of his own wine, and that of other merchants at Burdeg' Bordeaux , causing him to have the same according to the tenor of the king's letters. If payment is made in a currency, other than sterling, it should be made at its equivalent value then current in the city, and not in another manner. The constable is to have due allowance in his account for the same.
Blanc de l'Estelle has shown to the king by his petition, exhibited before the king and his council, that his father, during his life, had lands, tenements, houses, vineyards and rents in Sancta Liberada Sainte-Livrade[-sur-Lot] in Agenesium Agenais , which were valued at a not inconsiderable sum each year, and which, because of the wars in the duchy of Gascony have been lost to his father and to Blanc de l'Estelle, after his death, for eighteen years or more, they having being occupied by the king's enemies and rebels. Blanc de l'Estelle and his father, have been in the king's service in these wars, and neither of them received any recompense or remuneration from the king, or his ministers of the duchy.
Blanc de l'Estelle has requested some recompense, and the king ordered his then seneschal of Gascony and constable of Bordeaux, to diligently obtain information on these losses and the service, by all means that they are able, and if they are found true, then Blanc de l'Estelle was to be compensated from the goods of rebels in the duchy, or from the issues of the duchy. Although, as the king accepts, the information was obtained, and the losses were found to be 482 l.st. , and 20 d. bord. was the equivalent of one sterling, and that Blanc de l'Estelle and his father did serve the current king and Edward II , the same seneschal and constable did not make any satisfaction to Blanc de l'Estelle, as they attested before the king's council. Blanc de l'Estelle has again requested, by his petition, exhibited before the king and his council, that he be compensated for his damages, losses and service, and that the king will do this through allowance on the customs of his own wine and that of other merchants at Bordeaux, and the king having good reports of Blanc de l'Estelle's conduct, wishes to show his special grace in this matter to him.
Letters of protection, with clause volumus , until Christmas next, to Herberti Reynold Fitz Herbert, kt , who is staying in the king's service in Gascony, in the company of Hastyngges Laurence de Hastings, earl of Pembroke .
By K., and the testimony of Tyrel Bartholomew Tyrell .
- The clerk has clearly made an error in the marginal heading.
18 June 1346 . Porcestr' Portchester .
Letters of general attorney in England, for one year, for Hastynges Laurence de Hastings, earl of Pembroke , who is staying in the king's service in Gascony, nominating Henle William de Henley, clerk , and Eleford' Robert de Elford alternately.
Cotyngh' Thomas de Cottingham received the attorney.
Same as above Memorandum .
Memorandum that a great seal for the government of the realm in the king's absence overseas, was delivered to Master John de Ufford, chancellor , as appears in a memorandum enrolled on the dorse of the close rolls for this year. 1
- For the memorandum enrolled on the close rolls, see Calendar of the Close Rolls (CCR), 1346-9 , p.89.
6 July 1346 . Wyndesore Windsor . For protection .
Changed because it was otherwise sealed by the testimony of the baron.
18 July 1346 . Wyndesore Windsor .
Letters of general attorney in England, until Christmas next, for Henry, earl of Lancaster , who is staying in the king's service, by his order, in Gascony, nominating Gynwell' John Gynewell and Walter Power alternately.
Woll' David de Wollore received the attorneys.
12 July 1346 . Wyndesore Windsor . For protection .
By the testimony of Gynwell' John Gynewell' .
- The entry is followed by another set of entry marks, though no entry has been inserted.
6 September 1346 . Westminster . For protection .
Changed because it was otherwise sealed by the testimony of the earl.
26 October 1346 . Turris London' Tower of London . For protection .
To all admirals, and their lieutenants, sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs, masters and mariners of ships, and all others of the king's ministers and loyal subjects.
Letters of protection granted to Byteryng William de Bittering, merchant and master of a ship called Nicholas of Lenn' Lynn , who is taking various victuals to Gascony, for the sustenance of Henry, earl of Lancaster , and other faithful subjects in his company, for him, the ship, together with the men, victuals and other goods in the ship, to go to Gascony, stay there, and return in the king's special protection, and safe and secure conduct. No injury, trouble, damage, impediment or harm is to be permitted to be done to him or them, provided that Bittering finds sufficient security before the mayor and bailiffs of Lenn' Lynn that he will take the ship and victuals to the earl for his sustenance, and not elsewhere.
7 November 1346 . Turris London' Tower of London . For taking herring to the city of Bordeaux .
To all admirals, and their lieutenants, sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs, masters and mariners of ships, and all others of the king's ministers and loyal subjects.
Licence to Lovekyn John Lovekin of London to go to Burdeg' Bordeaux with his ship called La Rose of Parva Jernemuth' Little Yarmouth , loaded with herring, for the sustenance of the king's faithful subjects there, since he has come before the king in the chancery with Adam atte Pole and Lenn' Ralph de Lynn , who mainprised that he would go there, and would get letters of the seneschal of Gascony , constable of Bordeaux , or the mayor of the city , that would attest, before the king in the chancery, that he had gone there and discharged his cargo. He is to be permitted to go as above, paying the customs, without impediment.